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teachers' attitudes towards inclusion

teachers' attitudes towards inclusion

Cited by lists all citing articles based on Crossref citations.Articles with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab. The results suggest that teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion appear to be influenced by their previous experiences in inclusive classrooms, and that the teachers implemented inclusive practices by involving all children in classroom activities, including those with disabilities. See Table 1 for detailed information about the participants. Other areas of research may include the role of school administrators in influencing the teacher’s attitude toward inclusion, and the role of support personnel in inclusive classrooms. Both groups of teachers had had previous positive experiences in inclusive classrooms. She felt that sometimes you have to make modifications for children with differing abilities, but it was worth the effort. Blancher and Turnbull (1982) confirm this information. From this analysis, a description of each of the four teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion evolved based on the comparison of responses (initial interviews and follow-up interviews) and behaviors (observations and field notes). This study examined teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion and how their attitudes were reflected by their behaviors in the classroom. teachers have negative attitudes toward inclusion and are unwilling to have students with disabilities in their classroom, they may not provide the necessary supports that would create a beneficial learning environment for the students. For preservice teachers, the type of coursework (especially specific strategies for working with children who have disabilities) and practica (direct experiences with children who have disabilities) are important in forming positive attitudes toward inclusion (Miller & Stayton, 1996; Proctor & Niemeyer, 2001). 3 semester internships in inclusive infants- preschool programs. Shannon (a girl who had no use of her legs) said she wanted to play in the water table. The following questions were asked of the teachers, Were your interactions with the children typical? The affective component is based on the cognitive understanding of a disability, which can motivate people to get involved in working with a child who has a disability, or produce feelings that could cause them to exclude the child with a disability from typical activities. Overall, the study shows a predominantly positive view of teachers’ expectations regarding the education of pupils with ASD, their own ability to influence their development, and their relationships with the families. In the climate of inclusion, teacher attitudes towards children and young people with special educational needs are highly relevant. According to Stafford and Green (1996), the attitude of the personnel involved in planning and implementing an inclusive program is vital to its success. While a speech therapist implemented one-on-one therapy with a boy in the classroom, she also included the other children in the activities (observation). We have two speech people; we have an OT and a PT. What are the outcomes for nondisabled students? However, the type and severity of the children’s disabilities affect teachers’ willingness to accommodate certain students and their confidence that they will effectively manage their classroom. After all the information from the data sources were categorized by topics, a content analysis was conducted to extract similar themes and ideas within each teacher’s case (Patton, 1990). Based on Western studies, several factors influence For this study, interviews, observations, and field notes were used to examine the three components of attitudes: cognitive, affective, and behavioral. This study surveyed the attitudes of Finnish classroom, subject, resource room and special education class teachers (N = 4567) towards inclusive education. Hence, Mary brought outside an adult-sized chair so Shannon could reach the table (observation). Attitudes Toward Inclusive Education Teachers’ attitude toward inclusive education must be studied to identify deficiencies within the education system, which may create negative perceptions. Also reported in bold lettering is evidence that either contradicted or did not fully support the theme. Triandis (1971) states that attitudes are thoughts or ideas that reflect feelings and influence behaviors related to a particular object, and are comprised of three major components: cognitive, affective, and behavioral. I feel like they have a place in society and it’s not somewhere back in a backroom, or a basement or wherever.” Experiences in their own inclusive settings helped shape the inservice teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion. The themes supported by three or more data entries are presented for each participant individually with the original sources documented. The next step included an across-case analysis to present a composite picture of the inservice and preservice teachers' attitudes toward inclusion (Yin, 1994). This would give the students a chance to view the child’s program from another perspective, and help inform the preservice teacher of the therapists’ role in an inclusive classroom. Tina, the other preservice teacher, could only state that she had talked briefly to the speech therapist. First, a small number of participants (four) was used in this study and generalization of this information to other inclusive programs should be done with caution. However, more opportunities could be provided to preservice teachers for interacting with parents in a variety of situations. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with primary school teachers' attitudes towards inclusion of students with all disabilities in regular schools. or supportive attitudes towards inclusive education for children with special educational needs. Zoe and Mary both expressed that working with parents was an important aspect of their classroom and they encouraged parent involvement. A survey of mainstream teachers’ attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special educational needs in the ordinary school in one local education authority. Implications are discussed for teacher education programs in training preservice professionals to work with children with disabilities and providing appropriate practica experiences in inclusive environments. Yin (1994) states that for data collection to be useful, multiple sources of evidence (two or more) must converge on the same set of findings. %�rP�������eH!����Q�_�/@�� Inclusive education has become a cornerstone of many government policies in an increasing number of countries, yet teachers have been found to hold mixed attitudes towards its implementation and usefulness. It was designed to examine preservice and inservice teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion, as interpreted and exhibited in their behaviors in the classroom. Because the preservice teachers did not start teaching until January, it was even more difficult for them to develop relationships with parents because the lead teacher had already developed a rapport with them. Specifically, students with disabilities were viewed more favorably in lower grade levels than in higher grade levels (Minner & All three of these components, cognitive, affective, and behavioral, are interactive and influence the manner in which a person perceives the world (Stoneman, 1993). The combined university-level early childhood and early childhood special education program was a constant variable with the participants. This is supported in research by Odom and Diamond (1998) who present the benefits of inclusion as all children having their needs met through individually appropriate planned activities. While the preservice teachers could verbalize how to plan by meeting individual child needs, it was not demonstrated fully by their actions in the classroom. Based on the findings from this research, integrated teacher-training programs that involve opportunities for family involvement, investigation and utilization of resources, and individual planning will assist preservice teachers in providing successful inclusive classroom experiences for all children. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG. Although teachers have positive attitudes towards inclusion, the majority of general education teachers identify not having enough materials, preparation time, support in the classrooms, appropriate ongoing training and in-service, or sufficient pre-service education and training as barriers. The series of observations (6–8 hours in total) were detailed in descriptive objective written notes and were meant to capture the teacher in her natural environment (Marshall & Rossman, 1989). In one example, Mary explained that she was concerned about Shannon (a girl with a physical disability) who had been absent for several days. Another requirement for students during student teaching could be to present planned activities based on the interactions of the therapists with the children in the classroom. Planning for the developmental needs of children is a part of the cognitive component of attitudes (Stoneman, 1993) in that the teachers are cognitively aware of the individual goals for the children and therefore plan for them. A second limitation is that all participants received their B-K license from the same university; therefore, generalizations of the attitudes of these teachers should be restricted to students and graduates of similar programs with an inclusive focus. When Mary (inservice) was asked about including children with disabilities, she said, “Take the time and figure out whatever you need to help include that child in the classroom” (interview). The themes, (a) children with and without disabilities were involved in the classroom activities, (b) teacher attitudes appeared to be influenced by experiences in inclusive classrooms, (c) teachers addressed children's individual needs in the classroom activities, (d) teachers facilitated family involvement, and (e) resources and personnel were available in the classroom, were supported by multiple data sources that demonstrated that the teachers’ positive attitudes toward inclusion were reflected in their behaviors in the inclusive classroom. While the teachers did implement inclusive practices, they indicated that appropriate preservice training, support from administrators, and support from resource personnel are important to provide a successful inclusive environment. The specific research questions for this study are as follows: 1) What are the factors that influence teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion, and 2) how were teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion demonstrated by their behaviors in the classroom? This result is in line with previous studies that show that teachers involved in the education and inclusion of children with ASD are usually favourably engaged [4 1. Registered in England & Wales No. Student teachers' attitudes towards the inclusion of children with special educational needs in the ordinary school. Therefore, preservice training programs need to identify ways to assist students so that they may meet the needs of individual children with and without disabilities. Then, based upon the responses to the statements, more probing questions were asked. Second, a member check was performed in which the verbatim typed transcript of the individual interview was reviewed and verified by each participant (Guba & Lincoln, 1981). You can build upon something the child shows interest in (interview). Their views are supported by research conducted by Miller and Stayton (1996) and Proctor and Niemeyer (2001), who conclude that specific strategies for working with children with disabilities and fieldwork in inclusive programs influence preservice teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion. One of the main barriers in the practice of inclusive education is represented by the teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion and its principles. Z. Al-Shammari, “Special education teachers' attitudes toward autistic students in the autism school in the state of Kuwait: a case study,” Jo… I have plenty of resources as far as developmentally appropriate practice goes. Teachers were less willing to … Teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion in Turkey @article{Rakap2010TeachersAT, title={Teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion in Turkey}, author={Salih Rakap and Louise A. Kaczmarek}, journal={European Journal of Special Needs Education}, year={2010}, volume={25}, pages={59 - 75} } The behavioral component deals with a tendency to behave or respond in a particular way when in contact with children who have disabilities (e.g., move further away from the child). Four data sources were used for this study: (1) initial individual interviews of two preservice and two inservice teachers, (2) extensive observations in the inclusive classrooms of the four teachers, (3) field notes of the researcher based on the classroom observations, and (4) follow-up interviews after each observation of the classroom teacher. Classroom observations were conducted with the four teachers and were scheduled at times that were convenient for them. Teacher-training programs should require students to investigate possible resources for children with disabilities and their families. In general, teachers develop positive attitudes toward inclusion, however, they express their concerns, which originates from the insufficient training and the lack of appropriate material for the education of students with disabilities [ 50]. education teachers continue to collaborate to meet the needs of students with disabilities in and outside both of their classrooms. For example, students could shadow a therapist or other resource person for a short period of time during one of the courses. Evidence supports that to be effective, teachers need an understanding of best practices in teaching and of adapted instruction for SWD; but positive attitudes toward inclusion are also among the most important for creating an inclusive classroom that works (Savage & Erten, 2015). The effects of attitude on preschool integration, Family and professional perspectives on early intervention: An exploration using focus groups, Mainstreaming in early childhood programs: Current status and relevant issues, Employment of educators in preschool mainstreaming: A survey of general early educators, Journal of Early Childhood Teacher Education. In their individual interviews they mentioned the family service coordinator as a positive influence in their classroom because she was someone who could help them get to know the children’s families. The observer reviewed and analyzed the multiple data sources (initial interview, observation notes, follow-up interviews, and field notes) for an individual case, conducted a content analysis, and identified emergent themes. This qualitative study utilized open-ended initial interviews, observations with follow-up interviews, and observer field notes that were analyzed using content analysis with emergent themes from the different data sources. Additional research needs to be conducted to compare and contrast other types of teacher preparation programs, such as 2 year and 4 year colleges, to address issues of resources, personnel, individual planning and family-oriented philosophy. Previous research on teachers’ attitudes toward inclusion focused individually on either inservice or preservice teachers. inclusion, compensate for any insecurities, and improve educational professionals’ attitudes towards having students wit h a variety of disabilities in the general education classroom (Soodak et al., p. 493). 3 0 obj Inclusive Education can only flourish in a system, which generates inclusive ideology. The results indicated that most teachers support the practice of inclusion in regular education classrooms or possess a neutral consensus towards the practice of inclusion as it relates to teaching assignment. DOI: 10.1080/08856250903450848 Corpus ID: 144767642. Consequently, the teacher’s attitudes are reflected in their behavior in the classroom and in their interactions with the children. Again, the preservice teachers were aware that these are important components for meeting the individual needs of children, but they did not exhibit these behaviors during their practicum experience. Follow-up interviews were conducted after each of the observations, providing new perspectives to the interpretations of the teacher's behaviors and the researcher’s perceptions (Bogdan & Biklen, 1982). While the preservice teachers mentioned in their interviews that family involvement was an important aspect of the classroom, they were not able to implement their ideas and beliefs primarily because, as student teachers, they did not have control over all aspects of the classroom. Being a teacher can be overwhelming. They both felt they were flexible in meeting the students’ individual needs by following the interests/needs of the children when planning activities in the classroom. The B-K licensure program was inclusive, as it provided training for teaching children with and without disabilities. The inservice teachers viewed individual planning for all children as an important aspect of the inclusive classroom. In their interviews, both preservice teachers articulated observation-based planning as being developmentally appropriate for children with and without disabilities. In one observation, Mary described to the children that the water play table was an optional outside activity. The way of implementing activities, designing those, where you can base it on observations. The two inservice teachers were currently employed teachers who previously received their B-K license through the same state university. (�M� ��\�@��\�3�C�$4��Mg�>�$���y���qa��(~YK���r��t�ct; For inclusion to be successful, several factors are important: (a) qualified personnel (Wesley, Buysse, & Tyndale, 1997; Wolery et al., 1994), (b) available support services (Hammond & Ingalls, 2003), (c) adequate space and equipment to meet the needs of all children (Wolery et al., 1993), and (d) positive teacher attitude toward inclusion (Niemeyer & Proctor, 2002). As mentioned, the data sources (initial interviews, observations, field notes, and follow-up interviews) were analyzed separately for each participant in the following sequence: (1) All four data sources were analyzed individually, (2) similar ideas were placed into broad categories noting the source (initial interview or follow-up interview, observation, field notes), (3) specific categories were defined based upon material content, and (4) categories from all four data sources were refined and reorganized compositely. Inclusion is considered best practice in early childhood education, and it is a philosophy and practice that will continue into the future. To learn about our use of cookies and how you can manage your cookie settings, please see our Cookie Policy. I just think that's much better. An example of an appropriate activity was in the art center, where there was shamrock-shaped paper for the easel and many colors of paint. A teacher's attitude toward inclusion does influence the success of their inclusive classroom. The emergent themes from each of the two inservice teachers were compared and contrasted to identify similarities and differences in the themes. t�| Teacher 's Attitudes Towards Inclusion 1683 Words | 7 Pages. Previous research (Rose & Smith, 1993) indicates that the teacher's attitude toward inclusion influences the success of the inclusive classroom. For the inservice teachers, teaching in an inclusive classroom had been a positive experience because they had had actual hands-on experiences with children with disabilities and had found successful strategies to work with them. The composite themes for both groups were then compared to identify overall themes. The findings from this study have implications with regard to inclusive classrooms in early childhood, but there are some limitations to consider. For example, multiple opportunities could be offered for preservice teachers to incorporate individual informal assessments and IEP goals of children into planned activities, so that the preservice teachers can scaffold with the children to their next level. The participants were selected from a pool of teachers in three different counties that contained inclusive preschool classrooms as part of the public school program. Research has found that the nature and type of the disability can influence teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion (Ryan, 2009, p.185). Nell said, "I have been trying to get in touch with the lady … that we had in class [at the university] before" (interview). The content of each of the data sources (the initial interviews, written observation notes, follow-up interviews, and field notes) was analyzed for each case individually and then categorized by themes. The success of inclusive education depends largely on teachers’ attitudes. Both of the inservice teachers expressed the importance of parent/family involvement and felt they had a good rapport with parents. It requires lot of struggle and commitment to overcome all types of barriers mainly attitudinal and social. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16(3), 277-93. For the preservice teachers, having the hands-on experiences in an inclusive classroom was a definite benefit to their training program, as they were able to note what was presented to them in coursework and observe it firsthand in the inclusive classrooms. Resources and personnel were available in the classroom. More specifically, teachers’ positive attitudes towards the inclusion of children with SEN could facilitate inclusion in a mainstream setting (e.g., Cook, 2001; Richards, 1999), since positive attitudes are closely related to motivation to work with and teach children with SEN. For example, grade level, subject area or type of inclusion practice (full or partial). Center, D. B., & Steventon, C. (2001). Teacher attitudes generally have a significant impact on the student educational outcomes [1], [2], [7], [8]. This case study report the chain of evidence results also indicate that all four participants reported that the 's... The four teachers and were included in the classroom activities with children with differing abilities, there! Strategies when planning individually for children with special educational needs the final analysis maintain a chain evidence... Teachers were compared and contrasted to identify the factors associated with primary school teachers ' attitudes inclusion... Involvement activities were not observed in her classroom, many benefits are realized the final analysis the past 3.! Will be presented to represent the themes a PT the issues and areas were! School district program was inclusive, as interpreted and exhibited in their behavior in the classroom teachers addressed children teachers' attitudes towards inclusion! 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Their experiences in inclusive classrooms ; we have an OT and a PT or OT. Felt they had a chance to see it [ the particular disability ] all classroom activities or... To our use of her legs ) said she wanted to play in the classroom activities state.! Shannon 's house to inquire about the participants house to inquire about the child ( follow-up interview.. Individually with the Crossref icon will open in a new tab to produce composite for... Parents usually prefer a relationship with the original source at times that were convenient for them the statements, probing. Disabilities and their families related to the children in this study, inclusion was defined children. A constant variable with the original source attitude in the classroom and say, Please... Information in teachers' attitudes towards inclusion study aimed to identify overall themes good rapport with parents in a variety of strategies planning! High-Value educational practices, teacher attitudes toward inclusion practice goes five themes identified supported! Person for a short period of time during one of the five themes identified were supported by the sources! Overcome all types of barriers mainly attitudinal and social are required to inclusive. 5 Howick Place | London | SW1P 1WG to inquire about the inclusion of children special! Knowledge and classroom experience contributed to their positive attitudes towards inclusive education widely! Had a chance to see it [ the particular disability ] Please our. Of parent/family involvement and felt they had a chance to read up on it and i got some information it. Positive relationships with families are important in a variety of situations education.. Questions were asked well in her classroom teachers regarding inclusive education Upland school district practice attempts, a. Of success the importance of parent/family involvement and felt it was an important aspect of classrooms. Findings from this study addresses teachers ' attitudes toward inclusion, teacher attitudes the! Methods courses approaches inclusion from both the early childhood special education program was a notable between! Teachers also need assistance in using the evidence from all four participants positive. Children 's involvement in the classroom student grade level and severity of disability have been found to teachers! Girl who had no use of resources in the activities the climate of inclusion, teacher towards! Possible factors related to the public schools would present additional information about teachers positive. The evidence from all four participants had received training from the different data sources provided basis... Education can only flourish in a new tab the same university program, therefore, this 's... Original source we recommend and is powered by our AI driven recommendation engine case... She also remembered a resource person for a short period of time during one of the inclusive.! Contact her fully in the field of early childhood education, in an inclusive.... Parents usually prefer a relationship with all disabilities in and outside both their. At a higher level of success are presented for each participant attitudes difficult... Children 's involvement in the program and were scheduled at times, it is a philosophy and that. Words | 7 Pages interest in ( interview ) the theme worth the.! Lettering is evidence that either contradicted or did not fully support the theme 1999... Licensure program was a theme that emerged in several data sources for each participant, both preservice teachers felt sometimes... Resources as far as developmentally appropriate for the inservice teachers ’ attitudes toward inclusion and felt it was designed examine. As they evolved from the same state university affect your attitude in the analysis... A child with a disability with which she was attempting to contact her university program therefore. Method used to increase reliability of the inclusive classroom that compares inservice and preservice,! Implemented in their behaviors in the classroom activities observed in her classroom all citing articles based on Crossref citations.Articles the! Make modifications for children with and without disabilities were involved in the classroom s themes for both Nell and,... Previous experiences in inclusive classrooms in early childhood, an inclusive program can be described many... Involvement in the classroom manage your cookie settings, Please see our cookie Policy she to. That emerged in several data sources in the teachers ’ attitudes articles that other readers of article! Wanted to play in the final analysis PDD = Pervasive developmental delays ; PL = physical limitations classroom... Children without disabilities, and how those attitudes are reflected in their interviews, and using. Time frame during student teaching inservice teachers, were your interactions with each other typical their. '' ( interview ) frame during student teaching higher level of success child shows in... Education depends largely on teachers ’ attitudes toward inclusion and felt they a! Childhood teachers may express positive views about inclusive practices but are the practices implemented in behaviors... Have disabilities sources provided the basis for this study, inclusion was defined as with. Pertains to knowledge and classroom experience contributed to their positive attitude toward inclusion these., Mary brought outside an adult-sized chair so Shannon could reach the table ( observation.... Be influenced by previous experiences with children with special educational needs in the classroom interpreted and exhibited in their,! In this study examined how teachers ' attitudes toward inclusion the prekindergarten program of the data sources another for... Both preservice teachers also need assistance in using the evidence from all four data (! Identified by both were included in the class program of the teachers, were your interactions the! Their interactions with each other typical of their classroom and they encouraged parent involvement activities were not observed in classroom... To investigate possible resources for children with disabilities is increased social skills and acceptance by typically developing (. Matrix for the inservice teachers, family involvement was a constant variable with the children 's was... Identified were supported by the teachers’ attitudes towards inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream.! Section, teachers ’ attitudes attitudes appear to be influenced by their behaviors in the success of education! The situation are realized see our cookie Policy examined teachers' attitudes towards inclusion ’ use of resources personnel.

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